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Cyber Security

  Dursikshya Education Network
  12 Sep, 2021
  Cyber Security

Peek into Cyber Security

Peek Into Cyber Security

Er. Bikesh Shrestha

A Cyber Security professional performs activities that a hacker would probably do to get into the system. These activities involve planning, research through the overall system, gathering vulnerable points, exploiting those points, and finally getting the server access (where possible). Cyber Security is a very vast topic, and a few months or a year of training in this field is never enough. Starting the Cybersecurity journey is full of confusion; resources are available on the internet, but one does not know which platform to begin with and where they should begin. Below discussed are a few topics and platforms that any cybersecurity professional should know:


CVE (Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures) is a collection of well-known and discovered vulnerabilities. These vulnerabilities are recorded according to their date of discovery and associated with a unique id. E.g., CVE-2012-1823 represents a CVE with id 1823, which was discovered in 2012. An organization Mitre

(, keeps a record of all the CVEs present until today. To record a CVE, the information needs to be reached up to Mitre CVE Editorial Board, which then analyzes and verifies it and places a unique serial id to register it under CVE of the respective year. When performing a security scan, the library, packages, functions, platforms, and language used are checked to be safe from record vulnerabilities through CVE checking. If any package is found to be vulnerable as recorded by the respective CVE, a patched version of the package is suggested to be used. CVEs are also a reliable source of information during CTFs.


Capture The Flag in cybersecurity is an online competition to steal the flag hidden somewhere within a text, image, audio, website, virtual machine, or other resources. The flag usually starts with a symbol that represents the organizing

committee, e.g., PICOCTF{flag_found} would be a flag for the PicoCTF. Participants try to steal the flag by exploiting vulnerabilities they see in the journey. CTFs are designed for educational purposes where players form a team to compete with each other. There are three types of CTFs:

Jeopardy CTF: Jeopardy CTF consists of a few tasks related to Web, Forensics, Reverse Engineering, Pawning, Cryptography, Binary Exploitation, Open Source Intelligence, etc.

Attack-defense CTF: Here, teams are provided with their own vulnerable services.

They need to attack the opponents’ vulnerable services and make necessary patches in their own service such that the opponent can not attack theirs’. They score on the basis of patching on their service and exploitation of opponents’


Mixed CTF: Mixed CTF is a combination of other genres of CTFs, e.g., Kill of the Hill, where a player who reaches the top root access tries to block other users from getting the crown of the king, and the more the player holds the crown, the more he scores.

Kali and Parrot OS

Kali and Parrot are Linux Operating Systems. They are specially designed with preinstalled featured applications used during pen-testing. Applications pre-installed in these OS can be manually installed in other Linux OS. Some of the most popular Pen testing tools present in these OS are:

Burp Suite: It is PortSwigger’s well-known Request Interception application which can be used to edit and manipulate the request and response. Another feature of Burp Suite is its repeater, which allows sending the same request repeatedly along with desired modifications. It also provides Request Redirection. The decoder is used for encoding and decoding between hex, ASCII, URL encoding, etc. Intruder

in Burp Suite is used to brute-force within a range of value parameters. Every kind of attack is possible through Burp Suite.

Wireshark: Wireshark is used to capture packets going out and coming inside a network. It allows extraction of media files like images and videos and conversion of data into various formats like hex. When configured in a router, one can trace every packet traveling through the network. However, secure protocols make encrypted communication, and information displayed on the Wireshark is also encrypted.

John The Ripper: This is a password cracking tool used to extract the password from a hash. It requires a list of wordlists to perform encoding to compare the password by generating the hash of every wordlist. Hashing type need not be mentioned in this application.

Metasploit Framework: Metasploit is a potent tool in the Security World. It is used to generate payloads, exploit through any system. It operates on seven modules: Exploit, Payloads, Auxiliary, Encoders, Nops, Evasion, and Ports, to perform tasks related to scanning or exploitation. Meterpreter is a powerful Metasploit Shell. Msfvenom is used to generate platform-specific payload for exploitation.

Nmap: Nmap is another powerful tool in the security environment that is used for scanning through the ports. It provides open ports, the services running on them, and versions of the services running. Various flags can be used with Nmap to allow different operations and execute scans accordingly, like, Aggressive scan, Syn scan, UDP scan, etc.

AirCrack: It is a powerful tool to crack WPA and WEP router passwords. It is a tool to access wifi network security since it works with wireless technology.

Bug Bounty

Any abnormality in the system is a bug. And the cash amount received on reporting those bugs is Bug Bounty. Bug Bounty is an increasing research area among youngsters. There are various bounty programs organized by small to large companies where security professionals exploit the system to get any bug.

HackerOne ( is an active platform that conducts these bug bounty programs on a large scale.

Well-known platforms to gather resources

The exploitation of vulnerabilities and attacks is platform-centric. A cybersecurity expert needs to be aware of the language and platform used in a system to get into the system. CTFs themselves involve the integration of various platforms and languages. Exploit Database ( is a system with a collection of many related exploits and proof of concepts of the vulnerabilities.

OWASP is a non-profit organization involved in the development of cybersecurity.

It has set standards for web scanning, tools to use during a scan, and top security risks. It has a few software developed for the cybersecurity field like OWASP

AntiSamy, OWASP ZAP, and OWASP Juice Shop.

A cybersecurity expert needs to have Linux Skills, Programming Skills, Basic Hardware Knowledge, Cryptography Skills, Database Skills, and most importantly, Networking Skills.

Some renowned platforms to practice cybersecurity skills are TryHackMe, HackTheBox, PentesterLab, RedTiger’s Hackit, and OverTheWire. And the best certificate one can get in the field includes OSCP, CEH, CompTIA Security+, CISSP, CISA, and CHFI. These certificates require networking knowledge, Machine hacking knowledge, defensive knowledge, Cryptography knowledge, and web knowledge. Some Certificate exams do not allow the use of automated tools like Metasploit and SQLmap.

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Dursikshya Education Network
Dursikshya Education Network

Dursikshya Education Network

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